This article has multiple issues. An Act to consolidate the law relating to forests, the transit of forest-produce and the duty leviable on timber and other forest-produce. The most famous one was the Indian Forest Indian banking regulation act 1949 pdf of 1878. It also defines the procedure to be followed for declaring an area to be a Reserved Forest, a Protected Forest or a Village Forest.
It defines what is a forest offence, what are the acts prohibited inside a Reserved Forest, and penalties leviable on violation of the provisions of the Act. The 1865 act was a precursor to the Forest Act of 1878, which truncated the centuries-old traditional use by communities of their forests and secured the colonial governments control over the forestry. The act of 1865 empowered the British government to declare any land covered with trees as a government forest and make rules to manage it. Reserved Forest is an area mass of land duly notified under the provisions of India Forest Act or the State Forest Acts having full degree of protection. In Reserved Forests all activities are prohibited unless permitted.
The manner in which a , shortly written as RF, has to be constituted is described in section 3 to 20 of the Act. It is within power of a State Government to issue a preliminary notification under section 4 of the Act declaring that it has been decided to constitute such land, as specified in a Schedule with details of its location, area and boundary description, into a Reserved Forest. State Government, normally the Deputy Commissioner of the concerned district, as Forest Settlement Officer. The Forest Settlement Officer fixes a period not less than three months, to hear the claims and objections of every person having or claiming any rights over the land which is so notified to be reserved. He conducts inquiries into the claims of rights, and may reject or accept the same. He is empowered even to acquire land over which right is claimed. There after, the State Government issues notification under section 20 of the Indian Forest Act, 1927 declaring that piece of land to be a Reserved Forest.
The competent legislature shall be free to consider the desirability and propriety of deleting Section 377 from the statute book or amend it as per the suggestion made by Attorney, which holds same, almost all FOREX related messages are sent through SWIFT. On December 11, this code is used particularly in International transfer of money between banks. What is a Monetary policy? The Companies Amendment Act, clarification on Notification No S.
New York: Cambridge University Press, p. This page was last edited on 20 August 2017, at 07:57. The Code has since been amended several times and is now supplemented by other criminal provisions. 1835 and was submitted to Governor-General of India Council in 1837.
Its basis is the law of England freed from superfluities, technicalities and local peculiarities. The first final draft of the Indian Penal Code was submitted to the Governor-General of India in Council in 1837, but the draft was again revised. Calcutta High Court, who were members of the Legislative Council, and was passed into law on 6 October 1860. The Code came into operation on 1 January 1862. Macaulay did not survive to see his masterpiece come into force, having died near the end of 1859. Though not an initial objective, the Act does not repeal the penal laws which were in force at the time of coming into force in India. This was so because the Code does not contain all the offences and it was possible that some offences might have still been left out of the Code, which were not intended to be exempted from penal consequences.
Though this Code consolidates the whole of the law on the subject and is exhaustive on the matters in respect of which it declares the law, many more penal statutes governing various offences have been created in addition to the code. The Indian Penal Code of 1860, sub-divided into twenty three chapters, comprises five hundred and eleven sections. The Code starts with an introduction, provides explanations and exceptions used in it, and covers a wide range of offences. Of Offences affecting the Public Health, Safety, Convenience, Decency and Morals. Of Offences affecting the Human Body. Various sections of the Indian Penal Code are controversial. They are challenged in courts claiming as against constitution of India.
Also there is demand for abolition of some controversial IPC sections completely or partially. Whoever, voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment of life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten Years, and shall also be liable to fine. Explanation – Penetration is sufficient to constitute the carnal intercourse necessary to the offence described in this section. The Delhi High Court on 2 July 2009 gave a liberal interpretation to this section and laid down that this section can not be used to punish an act of consensual sexual intercourse between two same sex individuals. On December 11, 2013, Supreme Court of India over-ruled the judgment given by Delhi High court in 2009 and clarified that “Section 377, which holds same-sex relations unnatural, does not suffer from unconstitutionality”.
The Bench said: “We hold that Section 377 does not suffer from unconstitutionality and the declaration made by the Division Bench of the High Court is legally unsustainable. It, however, said: “Notwithstanding this verdict, the competent legislature shall be free to consider the desirability and propriety of deleting Section 377 from the statute book or amend it as per the suggestion made by Attorney-General G. Attempting to commit suicide and doing any act towards the commission of the offence is punishable with imprisonment up to one year or with fine or with both. December 2014 decided to decriminalise attempt to commit suicide by dropping Section 309 of IPC from the statute book. Though this decision found favour with most of the states, a few others argued that it would make law enforcement agencies helpless against people who resort to fast unto death, self-immolation, etc. Government to prepare a draft Amendment Bill in this regard.
306 and 309 of the IPC. The Section 497 of the IPC has been criticised on the one hand for allegedly treating woman as the private property of her husband, and on the other hand for giving women complete protection against punishment for adultery. There is ongoing debate for abolishing capital punishment. The Code has been amended several times. The Code is universally acknowledged as a cogently drafted code, ahead of its time. It has substantially survived for over 150 years in several jurisdictions without major amendments.